It is probably in Valencia, in the 15th century, that the „long“ movement of the queen and the madman, as we know it today, is introduced. The vizier who was the weakest part of the game becomes the strongest piece. A modification that transforms the game of chess into a dynamic game with sudden turnarounds.

In 1694, the Englishman Thomas Hyde publishes the first scientific book on the history of chess „Historia shahiludii“.

In the 18 century, chess became more and more popular and several studies were published.

© Swiss Museum of Games Collection – Treaty of chess, New edition A.D. Philidor, 1777